Safety and Environment
Transneft Primorsk Port, LLC, can serve as a perfect model of the practical application of the principles underlying the environmental safety policy of Transneft (Transneft, JSC before June 30, 2016)
The project of the construction of Specialized Sea Oil Port «Primorsk» affected not only the interests of Russia, but also the interests of a number of European countries located in the regions of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Therefore, the environmental requirements and standards of all the involved states had to be taken into consideration, regardless of their inherent differences.
The environmental feasibility study prepared for the terminal construction project was based on the most stringent environmental standards, both Russian and international. This approach is simple and clear, providing the best solution to the legal problem of compatibility of different environmental standards and offering the optimum way to meet the needs of the international community concerned about environmental protection.
The solution offered for the project was based on organizational, technical and environmental measures aimed at minimization of the scale of the adverse environmental effects and at mitigation of their consequences for the environment. The measures included the following:
In the tank farms of the oil loading terminal, the tanks are equipped with pontoons and floating roofs; thus, emissions of pollutants into the atmospheric air can be reduced by more than 90%. During the construction of the Primorsk tank farm, the tanks were erected by using the layer wall installation method and high-quality 09G2S steel; the thickness of the first ring wall was 28 mm, i.e. exceeding by 10 mm the thickness of the standard wall. The Amercoat primer based corrosion protection of the tanks complies with the ISO 8501 international standard and the quality of coating has 20-year bank guarantee;
Any risk of penetration of accidentally spilled oil into the soil is eliminated due to the waterproof surface under the tank and in the enclosure. The dike walls are made of reinforced concrete, which totally prevents any risk of oil spillage outside the enclosure;
The high-performance treatment facilities operating at the total rate of 2,490 cu.m/day were built in the oil loading terminal for collection and treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater to prevent pollution of near-shore waters;
For the purpose of navigational safety of the oil loading terminal, Primorsk and all the channels to it, waterways and vessels in them are monitored by the Regional Vessel Traffic Management System (RVTMS), which allows tracking tankers within the accuracy of 10 meters.
- In accordance with the applicable laws of the Russian Federation, Transneft Primorsk Port, LLC, has adopted the Oil Spill Response Plan, which has been approved by all supervising authorities.
To meet the fire safety requirements the tank farm and berthing facilities are equipped with a modern automatic firefighting system, due to which any fire, regardless of its scale and intensity, can be immediately detected and automatically extinguished within 10 minutes. The port has a special-purpose firefighting unit consisting of 47 people who regularly have firefighting and emergency response drills.
The environmental and analytical monitoring laboratory was set up and accredited by the RF Federal Committee for Standardization and Metrology in 2001, during the first days of operation of Specialized Sea Oil Port «Primorsk». The responsibilities of the laboratory include:
- continuous in-process monitoring of the operation of the treatment facilities of the port, the impact of the operation of the port on the atmospheric air, the state of the water in the Gulf of Finland and the soils, the quality of drinking water.
Since the beginning of the operation of the port the laboratory personnel have performed 185,548 analyses of the collected samples, including:
- 49,520 analyses, checking the operation of the treatment facilities of the port;
- 2,455 tests of drain water;
- 4,182 tests of drinking water;
- 1,858 tests aimed at monitoring of emissions and air quality control;
- 24,188 tests aimed at monitoring the state of the Gulf of Finland;
Over the entire period of operation of Specialized Sea Oil Port «Primorsk», the completed analyses and tests have never detected any exceedance of the set limits of impact on the environment.
Taking into account the unique characteristics of the Gulf of Finland, Transneft, JSC, adopted the decision on additional environmental monitoring of the isolated ballast water discharged by tankers during loading operations. The Company issued regulations setting forth requirements to the ballast water composition and approved the procedure for analytical monitoring.
With participation of the representative of the vessel, the laboratory technicians collect samples of ballast water from each isolated tank, at the depth of 0.5 meters.
The permit to discharge ballast water is issued by the environmental service of the port only if the quality parameters of the ballast water meet the established requirements to the admissible oil product content – 0.05 mg/cu.dm.
If the concentration of oil products exceeds the admissible levels > 0.05 mg/cu.dm, additional test samples are collected. If the exceedance of the admissible concentration level is detected, the ballast tanks will be sealed and no ballast water discharge is permitted.
For the purpose of monitoring the impact of discharged water on pollution levels of the port water, technicians of the environmental laboratory collect samples of sea water within the area of the forebody, midship and afterbody of the vessel prior to the discharge of ballast water and upon the completion of the discharge. At present, such stringent control measures are implemented only in Primorsk, while they are absent in ports of other countries of the world. Since the early days of the operation of the port the laboratory personnel have carried out quantitative chemical analyses of 41,249 collected samples of ballast water. As a result, 23 tankers with the excess oil product concentration in the ballast water have been detected. The discharge was forbidden and the contaminated ballast water of the total volume equal to 438,416 cu.m in the sealed tanks was returned, together with the vessels, to the initial points of deballasting. The monitoring data evidence that the content of oil products in the port waters has significantly decreased as compared to the background concentration levels in 1999 and during the construction of the port. The latest control tests showed that the content of dissolved oil products was 0.009–0.010 mg/cu.dm, thus being 5 times as low as the admissible levels.
Over the years of operation of Spetsmornefteport «Primorsk», more than 100 million tons of water having oil product concentration levels less than 0.05 mg/l (treated wastewater and ballast water) were discharged into the Gulf of Finland.
The prevention of contamination of the Gulf of Finland is addressed and taken care of by the flat ban adopted by the regulation of Transneft, JSC, on the entry of tankers to port «Primorsk» and on loading oil onto tankers, which do not meet the applicable international maritime safety requirements.
In compliance with the requirements of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships as of 1973 (Russia joined the Convention in 1983), the specialized sea oil port of Primorsk provides services to the arriving vessels in collecting domestic sewage, bilge water and different kinds of waste (including oily waste).
The treatment facilities perform treatment of domestic sewage and bilge water from vessels to the standards applicable to fisheries when the concentration levels of oil products (the main pollutant) in domestic sewage do not exceed 48 mg/l and in bilge water – 21,000 mg/l.
It should be noted that the requirements applicable to the chemical composition of treated wastewater are more stringent than the requirements to drinking water; in other words, it means that treated wastewater is better than drinking water in its chemical composition.
The treatment facilities for domestic, industrial and storm wastewater were built and put into operation to reach their effective performance in 2001 by the time of commissioning of port «Primorsk».
The increasing throughput volumes necessitated further extension of the treatment facilities.
From May to December 2005 (during 8 months) within the shortest possible time the company built a new unit of treatment facilities for domestic, industrial and storm wastewater.
After the start-up and set-up operations had been completed in February 2006, the total capacity of the treatment facilities was 2,490 cu.m/day, including:
- 2,060 cu.m/day – industrial and storm wastewater;
- 240 cu.m/day – domestic wastewater;
- 190 cu.m/day – bilge water collected from vessels.
The treatment facilities are efficient enough to treat bilge water from vessels, when the oil product concentration levels reach 21,000 mg/l, bringing them down to the levels required for fisheries water (the oil product content is 0.05 mg/l), thus decreasing the oil product concentration 500 thousand times.
The design and construction of the treatment facilities incorporated advanced approaches to the selected treatment methods and technology:
- settling tanks having the total capacity of 13,000 cu.m;
- two-phase and three-phase centrifuges;
- automatic measuring devices;
- automatic monitoring of operating parameters;
- three-stage system of treated wastewater filtration.
The area designated to the treatment facilities in port «Primorsk» is 10.3 hectares.
The total area from which storm wastewater is collected is 92.6 hectares.
Under water use license LOD No. 01520 issued on June 27, 2006, the area of responsibility of Transneft Primorsk Port, LLC, is 31.34 square kilometers.
The approved level of the maximum admissible oil spillage in port «Primorsk», pursuant to the requirements specified in Government Decree No. 613 «On Immediate Measures Aimed at Prevention and Elimination of Accidental Oil and Oil Product Spillage» dated August 21, 2000, is 1,500 tons.
For the area of its responsibility, Transneft Primorsk Port, LLC, has prepared and adopted the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Plan applicable to the facilities of Transneft Primorsk Port, LLC
For the purpose of elimination of any emergency situations caused by oil spillage in the port and acting in line with the Oil Spill Response Plan (OSRP), Transneft Primorsk Port, LLC, set up a professional emergence response service; its personnel went through training and received certificates from the North-Western Regional Center of the Ministry of Emergency Response; the service has all the required licenses for environmental operations in port «Primorsk».
The personnel of the Emergency Response Service consist of 120 people; the general team rescuers account for 50% and crews of the environmental fleet account for the other 50%.
The environmental safety personnel are on watch twenty-four hours, working in 4 shifts; their responsibilities include booming and de-booming of each tanker arriving at the berth for loading, environmental monitoring of the responsibility zone, daily emergency response drills conducted under the schedule.
The Emergency Response Service has advanced equipment for containment, removal, collection and transportation of oil; the equipment manufacturers are such world renowned companies as LAMOR – Finland, DESMI – Denmark, VIKOMA – the United Kingdom, and Ecoservice-Neftegaz and Gazturbo – Russia:
- the total length of containment means is 15,780 m
- the total rate of the response facilities is 1,396 cu.m/hour;
- the total capacity of the tanks for collection and transportation of oil is 1,620 cu.m;
- the environmental fleet consists of 12 vessels; 5 of them are icebreaker-type towboats, 2 fast boom pitter vessels carrying 250 m fast-to-roll-out booms, an oil garbage collector and emergency response boats.
The time specified in the Spillage Containment Plan by using the available resources and equipment in the area of the oil loading terminal is maximum 4 hours.
The time required for getting the personnel and equipment ready for emergency response does not exceed 1 hour for any point within the effective area of the Plan. During the containment of a spillage, when its amount does not exceed 1,500 tons, the responsibility for general supervision of the operations is taken by the Emergency Response Headquarters of Transneft Primorsk Port, LLC.
The Federal Oil Prevention and Spill Response Plan takes effect outside the responsibility zone of the port in the event of occurrence of an emergency situation of the regional or federal level of significance; the holder of the Plan is the Baltic Basin Emergency Response Department, Federal State Unitary Enterprise.
The personnel and equipped vessels of port «Primorsk» participate regularly in different, both their own and joint oil spill response drills; for example, on June 6, 2007 Spetsmornefteport «Primorsk» had drills in emergency response drills conducted jointly with the Ministry of Emergency Response of Russia, and on June 20, 2007 the personnel of the Emergency Response Service took part in the international oil spill response drill together with the RF State Marine Rescue Service; the drill took place in the oil terminal of Lukoil-II Vysotsk Distribution and Transshipment Center, JSC.
Transneft Environmental Policy
Being a key element of Russia’s energy sector that ensures its final performance, Transneft sets the maintenance of a high level of environmental safety of Transneft production facilities as its highest and unchangeable priority.
Realising the potentially dangerous impact of its technologically complex activities on the environment, Transneft shall develop and operate the main pipeline transportation system for oil and oil products and perform related works in such a manner as not to harm the environment and to ensure the highest level of environmental safety of its activities.
Environmental safety principles of Transneft:
- prevention and mitigation of the negative impact on the environment by implementing innovative technologies and improving environmental safety of the pipeline transportation facilities, reducing carbon intensity, pollution and waste discharge to the environment;
- rational use of natural resources at all stages of production activities subject to the legal requirements, improvement of energy efficiency of production at all stages;
- openness of important information in the area of environment protection.
Environmental safety responsibilities of Transneft:
- unconditional compliance with the requirements of international agreements of the Russian Federation, laws of the Russian Federation and its constituent entities, regulations of local self-regulating bodies, standards, rules and norms in the field of natural resource use, environment protection and environmental safety;
- full compensation of harm caused to the environment;
- consideration of long-term environmental impacts in designing, constructing and operating pipeline transportation facilities for oil and oil products;
- mandatory assessment of the impact of planned activities on the environment when making decisions on construction of production facilities;
- continuous improvement and perfection of environment protection activities and the environmental management system.
Transneft responsibilities for protecting the environment and ensuring environmental safety apply to all structural subdivisions of Transneft and organisations of the Transneft system, and are included in the system of business relations of Transneft with government authorities, partners and other stakeholders.
To company with the above principles, Transneft sets the following goals and objectives:
- plan and take actions with regard to issues of preventing and reducing the negative impacts on the environment by implementing innovative technologies and improving environmental safety of pipeline transportation facilities, reducing production waste, carbon intensity, pollution and waste discharge to the environment, where practically possible;
- design, construct, re-equip, reconstruct and perform capital repair of pipeline transportation facilities for oil and oil products, implement production processes and operate equipment using modern environmentally safe technologies;
- develop and implement cost-effective and innovative technologies ensuring efficient use of raw and other materials and energy products, resource recovery and waste utilisation;
- allocate sufficient physical, financial and human resources to ensure the taking of environment protection actions;
- create economic and organisational conditions for rational use of natural resources in design, construction, re-equipment, reconstruction, capital repair and operation of pipeline transportation facilities for oil and oil products;
- ensure compliance of contracting organisations in design, construction, re-equipment, reconstruction, capital repair of facilities of the Transneft system with the requirements of international agreements of the Russian Federation, laws of the Russian Federation and its constituent entities, regulations of local self-regulating bodies, standards, rules and norms in the field of environmental safety and rational use of natural resources, the environmental management system of Transneft;
- carry out corporate (within Transneft) and production (within organisations of the Transneft system) environmental control, follow the established licensing, insurance and certification procedures for pipeline transportation facilities for oil and oil products;
- perform standardisation and quality control of the environment during transportation, pumping and storage of oil and oil products, including systematic assessment of the environmental impacts;
- improve energy efficiency of production processes at all stages;
- take a set of measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions;
- reduce the risk of accidents that have environmental consequences based on a full-scale inline inspection of main pipelines and timely examination of the tank park;
- maintain a high level of provision of Transneft and organisations of the Transneft system with technical means to liquidate spills of oil and oil products and readiness of management bodies, response forces and means to respond to environmental threats that may occur;
- take a set of measures to recover and rehabilitate disrupted areas;
- ensure efficient financing and continuous improvement of the environmental management system of Transneft in accordance with the international standard ISO 14001:2004 be timely development and update of corporate regulations in the field of production process management, environment protection and environmental safety, clear distribution of employees’ rights, obligations and responsibilities for the condition of the environment;
- conduct regular assessment of the importance of environmental aspects of activities of Transneft and organisations of the Transneft system;
- set and ensure continuous analysis and consistent update of target and planned economic indicators (goals and objectives of the environmental management system) to reduce the negative environmental impacts;
- increase environmental culture, educational and professional level of personnel of Transneft and organisations of the Transneft system in the field of rational use of natural resources, environment protection and environmental safety;
- improve continuously the image of Transneft as an environmentally focused company based on trust of international environmental organisations, partners, customers and the population in regions where Transneft and organisations of the Transneft system operate.
Transneft believes that compliance with these provisions is a key to ensuring environmental safety of its activities and performing socio-economic tasks aimed at implementing the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation for the Period until 2030.